ECTS Users' Guide

The ECTS Users' Guide offers guidelines for implementing ECTS and links to useful supporting documents. Following the request from Bologna Ministers in Bucharest (Bucharest Communiqué, 2012), the ECTSUsers' Guide of 2009 has been revised, in order to strengthen the 'meaningful im­plementation of learning outcomes' in the EHEA. The Guide takes forward the objec­tive of Ministers to 'call on institutions to further link study credits with both learning outcomes and student workload and to in­clude the attainment of learning outcomes in assessment procedures'. This revised version is based on a solid foundation of work done in recent years, both within the Bologna Process and in individual coun­tries, to help the academic community and other stakeholders in higher education to move in the direction of the changes advocated by the Bologna Process.

The revised Guide takes into account recent developments in the Bologna Process such as the establishment of the EHEA, the consolidation of lifelong learning, the paradigm shift from teacher-centred to student-centred higher education, the in­creasing use of learning outcomes, and the development of new modes of learning and teaching. It includes a specific focus on programme design and delivery, and builds on the experience of higher education institutions in using qualifications frameworks and in applying ECTS principles in academic practice. The Guide is offered to students and other learners, academic and administrative staff in higher education institutions as well as to employers, education providers and all other interested stakeholders. For ease of reading, the term 'student' is used to refer to all learners in higher education in­stitutions (whether full-time or part-time, engaged in distance, on-campus or work­ based learning, pursuing a qualification or following stand-alone educational units or courses).

The revised Guide has been written by a working group of practitioners appointed by Bologna countries and stakeholders' associations. It has been submitted for con­sultation to stakeholders' associations, experts from countries in the EHEA, and the Bologna Follow-up Group. The European Commission has coordinated the drafting and consultation process. Finally, the Guide has been adopted by Ministers for Higher Education of the European Higher Educa­tion Area in 2015 at the Yerevan ministerial conference. It is therefore the official Guide for the use of ECTS.